A cell contains many mitochondria, each having dozens of copies of the mitochondrial genome. The mutation rate of the mitochondrial genome is higher than that of the nuclear genome, which leads to heterogeneous populations of mitochondrial DNA in the same cell or even in the same mitochondria. When a cell divides, its mitochondria divide into two daughter cells. However, the separation process of mitochondria is random, and its tissue structure is much worse than the high-precision nuclear chromosome separation process during mitosis. The result is that the two daughter cells receive similar but not identical copies of mitochondrial DNA.
Compared with nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable even with a repair mechanism since the repair capacity is limited. Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nDNA, including proteins that regulate mitochondria, mitosis, fusion, division and signal transduction. This nuclear genome mutation can lead to mitochondrial genome instability, including a large number of mitochondrial DNA deletions and point mutations.
Creative Biogene provides an integrated platform for when mitochondrial diseases may be caused by mutations and polymorphisms of the mitochondrial genome. We can provide mtDNA mutation screening and a full range of follow up and analysis services for our worldwide customers.
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